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    Annotated bibliography of teacher research in reading in Trinidad and Tobago 1982-1991
    (1994-07) Brown, Marie-Louise
    This bibliography contains references to studies conducted in the field of reading by students of the Certificate in Education and Diploma in Education programmes at the Faculty of Education, The University of the West Indies (UWI), St. Augustine during the period 1982-1991. The research summarized in this publication deals mainly with, 1) research into the methods of teaching reading and activities directly related to reading, 2) reading difficulties, 3) effectiveness of reading tests, and 4) recommendations for improving the delivery of instruction in reading and the establishment of a policy for teaching reading across the curriculum. It is divided into two parts: Part I deals with research on primary schools pupils and Part II with secondary school students. Each part has an index, which identifies the major areas on which the studies are focused.
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    Report on the evaluation of the 2001 reading readiness programme
    (Ministry of Education, 2001-11) Trinidad and Tobago. Ministry of Education, Division of Educational Research and Evaluation
    This 2001 evaluation of the Reading Readiness Programme in Trinidad and Tobago was intended to provide information on the performance of the remedial reading intervention in each of the 17 participating schools, and the measurable effect of the three-week programme on students’ reading skills. It was found that teachers were able to provide individualized instruction and support for students at 18 sites, and that students had responded enthusiastically and many had benefited from the three-week programme.
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    Reading-challenged fourth-formers' perspectives on schooling
    (School of Education, UWI, 2009) Farrell, Permilla
    This study sought to reveal the perspectives on schooling of two forth-form students who read below their chronological age and who were enrolled in a senior comprehensive school on the “East-West Corridor” in Trinidad and Tobago. It attempts to identifies the strategies employed by these students to cope with the curriculum, their affective responses to schooling, and the extent to which they perceived their special educational needs to be catered for in the then existing senior comprehensive school system. The data revealed that the participants experienced some negative affective responses to schooling. Aware of their relative incompetence as readers and their self-perceived disadvantage relative to their peers, they felt anger and embarrassment and sought to avoid reading tasks. However, the two participants also displayed some positive affect towards schooling. While not being highly efficacious students, they displayed some of the behaviours consonant with efficacious students.
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    Proposal for the upgrading of foreign language teaching in secondary schools in St. Vincent and the Grenadines
    (Education Planning Unit, 1992-09) St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Ministry of Education, Culture, Youth and Women's Affairs
    Under the programme for Rationalizing the Operations of Newer Secondary Schools (June 1998), the teaching of foreign languages was virtually eliminated from the curriculum in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. This proposal examines the following: 1) student enrolment in foreign languages, 2) foreign language results, and 4) foreign language teachers. Based on this analysis, recommendations are made for the re-introduction and further development of foreign languages in secondary schools. It is hoped that these would provide the basis for formulating a policy with regards to the teaching of foreign languages at both the formal and non-formal levels.
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    Towards a rational language education policy for Caribbean states
    (The University of the West Indies, 1993-02-07) Robertson, Ian E.
    This paper examines the language teaching contexts of the English-speaking with a view to identifying the level of adequacy for the fulfilment of the desired education goals. It argues that current policy has not, for a number of reasons, addressed those aspects of language education policy that are critical to the realization of the relevant of desirable goals. The proposed solution is that there should be a radical departure from the traditional approaches with their heavily individualized language focus to one that shifts the focus from the teaching of individual languages to the issues of education. This approach should see the teaching of individual languages as part of a much wider policy of language education that will address squarely the goals of the system.
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    Language teaching, linguistics and the teaching of English in a multilingual society
    (Faculty of Education, UWI, Mona, 1965) The University of the West Indies, Mona, Faculty of Education
    This document includes a report of the Conference on Linguistics and Language Teaching in a Multilingual Society held on the 6-9 April, 1964, as well as reports on findings of previous research. The conference was intended to ascertain and report on: 1) What lines of research had already been pursued, and by what methods; 2) What had been or needed to be published; 3) To what extent research already done could be translated into action for the improvement of teaching; What further areas needed to be explored; and 5) Priorities in research needs for the improvement of teaching.
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    Between to grammers: Research and practice for language learning and teaching in a Creole-speaking environment
    (Ian Randle, 2010) Bryan, Beverley A.
    This book addresses the issue of English teaching in a Creole-speaking environment. It aims to: a) present an enriched view of the multiple meanings of language and English in teaching in the Caribbean; b) provide the tools to navigate the language arena, so that teachers can interrogate their responses to language; c) generate a set of principles appropriate for teaching English in Creole-speaking environments; d) review specific language teaching methodologies so that teachers can make theoretically sound pedagogical decisions about what they offer students; and e) empower teachers to develop a critical reflective perspective on their practice.
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    Language education policy
    (Ministry of Education, Youth and Culture, 2001-11) Jamaica. Ministry of Education, Youth and Culture
    This policy seeks to provide direction for the treatment of language issues in the Jamaican educational context, in order to improve language and literacy competencies.
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    Methodological considerations in analysing the speech of children in Trinidad and Tobago
    (1978) Carrington, Lawrence D.
    The analysis of the speech of children formed part of the investigation of problems of learning and teaching English in Trinidad and Tobago. This paper discusses the nature of the analytical problems encountered and the methodological considerations that determine the analytical procedures.
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    Towards a survey of foreign language teaching and learning in secondary education in Trinidad and Tobago - Some initial comments
    (1980-01) Rousseau, Lystra
    This paper attempted to focus attention and comment on aspects of foreign language teaching and learning in Trinidad and Tobago that were cause for concern. Sources of information for the paper included: Curriculum Studies by Diploma in Education (Dip. Ed.) students, 1977-78 and 1978-1970; Social Studies by Dip. Ed. students; and remarks by students on the Dip. Ed. course, French teachers, foreign language supervisors, principals, and secondary school students.
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    Developing a meaningful language education policy for Caribbean States
    (1992) Robertson, Ian E.
    This paper examines the factors responsible for the pattern of language education that exists in the former British colonies, where the teaching and learning of languages continue to be completely instrumentally oriented. This involves the rejection of the Creole languages as having any status other than that of a bastardized form of the relevant European lexical donor language. This paper attempts to begin the type of discussion that could encourage the rethinking considered necessary. It makes a case for a more comprehensive look at language education from and education perspective, and for using the goals of education to determine the guiding principles for language education policy.
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    Introduction of information technology in schools in Jamaica
    (Office of the UNESCO Representative in the Caribbean, 2000) Daley-Morris, Paula
    This monograph describes the initiatives that enabled the introduction of computers to Jamaican primary and secondary schools. It also describes student performance on the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) Information Technology (IT) examination over a period of six years. The results show that each year more candidates were entered for the Technical Proficiency level than the General Proficiency level of the examination. The monograph further shows that student performance at the General Proficiency level steadily improved over the six years, while it fluctuated at the Technical Proficiency level. It highlights the fact that the performance of Jamaican candidates improved significantly in the year CXC instituted the six-point grading system. However, most of the passes were below the Grade 1 level. The data suggests that there may be deficiencies in the education system that caused IT teachers to show a preference for teaching the Technical Proficiency syllabus. The implications of this occurrence as it relates to tertiary level training in computer science are discussed.
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    Sex differences in response to General Certificate of Education and Caribbean Examinations Council courses in computer studies: A case study of Jamaican high schools
    (The University of the West Indies, Mona, 1993) Alleyne, Brian
    The study examines the responses to students in three Jamaican schools to courses in computer studies which lead to the General Certificate of Education (GCE) and Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) examinations. Existing work on different approaches to epistemology and cognitive style, and different styles of computer usage was reviewed. An attempt was made to conceptualize a continuum of styles of computer usage, which ranges from abstract and formal on the one hand to concrete on the other, and to develop a scale that could be used to measure this range. The study employed a questionnaire and a standard test of cognitive style as its main data gathering instruments. Teachers of computer studies in each of the three schools were interviewed. No statistically significant sex difference were found. The two syllabi were compared and both were found to favour an abstract approach to computer usage. While some of the items in the scale of computer usage styles were found to be significantly correlated with each other, the scale as a whole was not found to be internally consistent. Several factors identified in the literature were found which restrict student access to computer studies as a subject choice. The study concluded that while no sex differences were found for the sample, this could not be used as a basis for generalization to the wider school population.
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    A study of elementary students coming from varying socio-economic backgrounds in urban and rural areas of Trinidad and Tobago and the effect these backgrounds have on performance in the Eleven Pluss (11+) Examinations
    (1973) Mahabir, Harold Gilks
    This study sought to: 1) examine the early developments in education under British rule, 2) show how students from varying socio-economic backgrounds performed under the inherited system, 3) closely examine the effects of the educational system on the rural poor student, 4) make overall comparisons of the urban rich student and the rural poor student to determine their standing in educational achievement, 5) suggest implications for contemporary policy makers interested in alleviating any inconsistencies revealed. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 1,025 students from 11 primary schools representing the varying socio-economic backgrounds of students in Trinidad and Tobago. It was found that a great difference existed between primary school students coming from high socio-economic backgrounds and those of low socio-economic backgrounds. Those coming from high socio-economic backgrounds were a) more successful in national 11+ examinations, b) highly motivated, c) secured better places in the education system, and d) lived mostly in urban areas. Those from low socio-economic backgrounds a) performed poorly in national examinations, b) lacked motivation, c) did not secure equal treatment in the educational system, d) lived mostly in rural areas. The ratio of success as shown by those who passed the 11+ examination was 5 to 1 in favour of the urban student.
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    Gender privileging and socio-economic outcomes: The case of health and education in Jamaica
    (1997) Figueroa, Mark
    This paper seeks to explore socio-economic consequences of gender privileging. In doing so, it clarifies the different ways in which the concept of gender privileging may be usefully deployed. In particular, it distinguishes between the notion of the privileging of a gender within a particular socio-economic context and the experience of privilege by a gender within that context. It then goes on to indicate the ways in which this has led to an experience of privilege by one or other of the genders. In linking the process of gender privileging to socio-economic outcomes, the process of gender socialization is explored as a mechanism through which socio-economic outcomes are influenced by gender privileging in various socio-economic spheres, in particular health and education.
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    Education and social change in Trinidad and Tobago: Preliminary version
    (University College, London, 1111) Burnham, Philip
    This paper is largely devoted to an analysis of the effects of the movement from the highly selective educational system of the late colonial period in Trinidad and Tobago, with its tight linkage to the values of the Creole continuum and to the English grammer school model, towards a mass educational system closely associated, from its inception, with nationalistic political goals. Suggestions are offered for educational change against the background of an analysis of the changing structures and value orientations of present-day society.
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    Education and its impact on poverty: Equity or exclusion
    (Office of the UNESCO Representative in the Caribbean, 2000) Kambon, Asha; Busby, Lancelot
    This monograph examines the poor and their relationship with the education system in the Caribbean through an analysis of data from poverty assessments in selected Caribbean countries. It posits that education is one of the single most vital elements in combating poverty and that it is a right. The monograph suggests that there is genuine belief in schooling and that it will lead to better opportunities and an improved standard of living. Parents, rich or poor, expect that the education system will provide their children with the basic skills to either continue with their education or pursue a livelihood that will enable them to enjoy a descent standard of living. It reports that some 38 percent of the population in the Caribbean is classified as poor, and that this poverty acts as a constraining factor to access to education and the quality of the education that is received. The generally low performance level of the education system exacerbates the state of poverty. It is concluded, therefore that the education system is failing one group of children more than others—those that are poor—and thus denying them the opportunity to become contributing members of the society, and to achieve the goal of sustainable human development. It is suggested that what is needed is a rescue plan for the education system, which will transform it into a catalyst for genuine social equity. If not, the existing stratification between rich and poor may reinforce, rather than correct, income inequalities and perpetuate the cycle of poverty.
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    Survivors of the experience: The first three years of secondary schooling in Trinidad and Tobago
    (Office of the UNESCO Reprensentative in the Caribbean, 1999) Jules, Vena
    A longitudinal study was designed to trace student survival to the end of the first cycle (third year) of secondary school through a randomly selected representative sample. The sample comprised 2, 125 students and 64 classroom groups—10 percent of the students of one year entry. Data gathering by questionnaire, interviews, and small-scale observation was done during the last five weeks of each school year. Results revealed that dropouts was greatest at the end of Year 2 (2.8 percent) and, in that year, was highest among students starting school with Common Entrance (CEE) marks, students from low income homes, males, students of remote schools, students in Muslim Board managed schools and students of African descent, and was related to situations where problems were more personal. Dropout in Year 3 was highest among girls, students who considered themselves White, and related to situations where the problem was within the school environment. Dropout of boys from boys’ schools, children of mixed descent, and children from father-only and grandparent or guardian-headed household continued unabated throughout all three years.
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    Students' affective reactions to their early secondary schooling experiences in Trinidad and Tobago
    (Office of the UNESCO Representative in the Caribbean, 1999) Jules, Vena
    A longitudinal study was conducted with a 10 percent representative sample of one entry year cohort of first cycle secondary schools students in Trinidad and Tobago. This sample consisted of 2,125 students in 64 classroom groups from every school type and education district. Towards the end of each school year, students were asked whether or not they liked coming to school and why, what classroom events evoked interest, which ones feelings of being unsure, and how they responded to each case. Three classroom groups were also observed and students and school personnel interviewed. Results indicated that most students liked coming to school even though the number so responding decreased each year. Students’ reasoned responses regarding their affective reaction fell into the following categories for each of the three years (1, 2 and 3), with the respective frequency of response indicated in parentheses: 1) interaction with other students (19.6 percent, 21.4 percent, 24 percent); interaction with teachers (20.9 percent, 6.8 percent, 3.9 percent); 3) the specific school (34.7 percent, 37 percent, 31.1 percent, 4) the programme offered (38.7 percent, 32.4 percent, 34.9 percent); 5) beliefs about purposes of schooling that had a career or future oriented focus (22.8 percent, 33.8 percent, 30.9 percent); and 6) a need to please others (1.3 percent, 1.5 percent, 1.4 percent). Experience in school evoked a range of feelings and emotions. Among the more positive was a feeling of belonging, which was most prevalent among girls. The more negative emotions were fear, shame, and a variety of others deriving from school-based hurts. More males than females spoke of events filled with fear and shame.
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    The rights of the child and the Caribbean experience: Report
    (UNICEF Caribbean Area Office, 2000-03) UNICEF Caribbean; The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus
    This report summarizes the presentations made at the symposium, which was convened to: 1) invite Caribbean scholarship to examine the articulation between the articles and principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the social, historical, and cultural realities of the region; and 2) identify for policy makers in government and the civil society, central issues concerning the factors that facilitate, and those that constrain, the realization of the rights of the child.