Prevalence and associations of depression among patients with cardiac diseases in a public health institute in Trinidad and Tobago



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Abstract Background Psychosocial issues are major determinants as well as consequences of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study sought to assess the prevalence and identify factors associated with depression among patients with cardiac disease in a public health institute in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 388 hospitalised, stable, adult patients with cardiac disease admitted in the only tertiary public health institute in South Trinidad. Patients were identified and interviewed 3 to 5 days after admission using a questionnaire comprising questions on demographic, medical, and lifestyle issues and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results The prevalence of clinically significant depression (PHQ-9 > 9) among hospitalised patients with cardiac disease was 40.0%. However, the prevalence of non-minimal depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) in this study was 78.4%. It was greater among women (83.1%) than among men (72.9%). Non-minimal depression was associated with sex (p = 0.015), employment status (p = 0.007), hypertension (p = 0.017), stressful life (p ≤ 0.001), feelings of depression (p ≤ 0.001), regular exercise (p ≤ 0.001), and living alone (p = 0.006). Age, ethnicity, education level, income, or religious affiliations were not associated (p > 0.05) with depression. Participants diagnosed with depression commonly reported feeling tired (81.2%), having trouble sleeping (74.7%), and moving/speaking slowly (73.5%). Patients with self-claimed depression (past or current) were four times more likely to have depression and those with self-reported stress and loneliness were twice as likely to have depression. Employed patients and those who exercised regularly were approximately 50% less likely to have depression. Conclusions Clinical depression prevalence among hospitalised patients with cardiac disease was 40.0%. Approximately twice as many (78.4%) had non-minimal depression, with higher prevalence among women. Employment, sex, hypertension, stressful life, feelings of depression, regular exercise, and living alone were associated with non-minimal depression. Patients with self-claimed depression, stress, and those living alone had a much higher likelihood of having depression, while those who were employed and exercised regularly were approximately half as likely to have depression.


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BMC Psychiatry. 2019 Jan 07;19(1):4