The effects of genetic manipulation, dieldrin treatment and irradiation on the mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis in field cages

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Title: The effects of genetic manipulation, dieldrin treatment and irradiation on the mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis in field cages
Author: Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc JB; Gilles, Jeremie RL; Munhenga, Givemore; Damiens, David D
Abstract: Abstract Background To enable the release of only sterile male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes for the sterile insect technique, the genetic background of a wild-type strain was modified to create a genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 that was based on a dieldrin resistance mutation. Secondly, the eggs of ANO IPCL1 require treatment with dieldrin to allow complete elimination of female L1 larvae from the production line. Finally, male mosquito pupae need to be treated with an irradiation dose of 75and#160;Gy for sterilization. The effects of these treatments on the competitiveness of male An. arabiensis were studied. Methods The competitiveness of ANO IPCL1 males that were treated either with irradiation or both dieldrin and irradiation, was compared with that of the wild-type strain (An. arabiensis Dongola) at a 1:1 ratio in 5.36and#160;m3 semi-field cages located in a climate-controlled greenhouse. In addition, three irradiated: untreated male ratios were tested in semi-field cages (1:1, 5:1 and 10:1) and their competition for virgin wild-type females was assessed. Results The ANO IPCL1 males were equally competitive as the wild-type males in this semi-field setting. The ANO IPCL1 males irradiated at 75and#160;Gy were approximately half as competitive as the unirradiated wild-type males. ANO IPCL1 males that had been treated with dieldrin as eggs, and irradiated with 75and#160;Gy as pupae were slightly more competitive than males that were only irradiated. Ratios of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 irradiated ANO IPCL1 males: untreated wild-type males resulted in 31, 66 and 81% induced sterility in the female cage population, respectively. Conclusions An irradiation dose of 75and#160;Gy reduced the competitiveness of male ANO IPCL1 significantly and will need to be compensated by releasing higher numbers of sterile males in the field. However, the dieldrin treatment used to eliminate females appears to have an unexpected radioprotectant effect, however the mechanism is not understood. A sterile to wild-type ratio of 10:1 effectively reduced the populationand#8217;s fertility under the experimental field cage conditions, but further studies in the field will be needed to confirm the efficiency of sterile ANO IPCL1 males when competing against wild males for wild females.
Date: 2014-08-13

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